AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus more on teaching their students critical thinking skills, intellectual standards, and cultivating intellectual traits such as intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, and fair-mindedness than on memorizing facts by rote learning. However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts. Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. These elements also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines. Perhaps you can now see the problem. This list is, of course, incomplete, but it serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be.

Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not. Most people are followers of authority: In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment. Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter. Part of critical thinking comprises informal logic. Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world.

Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers.

Critical thinking crotical a learned ability that must be taught.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

We do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it. Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not.

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Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. However, a large part of critical thinking goes beyond informal logic and includes assessment of beliefs and identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.

Most people, therefore, do not think critically. Nickersonan authority on critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in thinknig of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving.

Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do, but does so in a reflective way. Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that thniking should focus more on teaching their students critical thinking skills, intellectual standards, and cultivating intellectual traits such as intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, and fair-mindedness than on memorizing facts by rote learning.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman | The Art of Thinking Critically

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.

Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinkjng egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts. tihnking

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common scuafersman. Critical thinking gives due consideration to the evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making that judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming that judgment, and the applicable theoretical and constructs for understanding the nature of the problem and the question at hand.

Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker:. Critical thinking is the ability to think for one’s self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one’s life. Perhaps you can now see the problem.

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an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise.

Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking

This second ability is termed critical thinking. True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society’s need for nuclear power plants, stevrn assess the consequences of global warming.

Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions.

Most people, therefore, do not think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

Humans constantly process information. Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves acquiring information and evaluating it to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer. Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker: This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.