Relocation is seen as a cheaper alternative to on-site adaptation measures. Bonded social capital is considered stronger than bridged social capital, as the former is shaped through relations of kin- ship, friendship, and informal norms. I want to acknowledge Carola Betzold for being such a supportive, communicative, en- gaged and competent supervisor. I understand the contradicting opinions as a need to look at each case and context separately instead of trying to find a universal answer for how social capital is affected by, for instance, climate change impacts. The people of Legarda have experienced the realities of being unwanted in the city and under a threat of eviction for most of their lives. The urban poor federation and Aquino came to an agreement; in exchange for the support of the urban poor federation, President Aquino signed a covenant of ten points for improving the situation of the urban poor; which led to a rally of For security and consent reasons, I also decided to get a second approval of all direct quotes used in the thesis before publication.
However, the river is now contributing to an intensification of flooding due to pollution such as trash blockages Agence France-Presse, Even though some individuals in the estero have bridged with UPA in order to achieve an on-site housing project, the community as a whole will have diffi- culties gaining support from other agents due to their lack of bonded social capital and communal goals. Furthermore, Legarda has a good relationship to their barangay captain since she is also part of the NML. The view the respondents have on relocation brings up some of the same problematics that have been raised in previous research on relocation sites. My UPA respondent reaffirmed that the problem lies in the amount of paper work that is necessary for each step of the process: Individuals holding a high concentration of valued resources, such as financial capital, political power, and authority can have smaller but powerful groups of bonded social capital. One cluster leader in particular served as my main guide around the community, this cluster leader participated during some of the interviews and was acting as a translator.
Active migrants move place of habitation mainly due to a rational choice where the migrant is pulled towards the place of destination. Caes action, social capital and development: Before the proliferation of motor vehicles, the esteros were the highways of the city transporting people and commerce. NML arranges for a monthly clean-up of the community, including the waterways: Presuming that the PPHI will be accomplished, I asked my respondents how their life will be different once they have moved in to their new homes.
Social capital in practice Lin identifies four main arguments to why investment in social networks is successful in instances that cannot be explained by personal capital such as human, cultural, and economic capital. To date, around 1, families have been relocated from Estero de Paco since relocation activities started on July 9, Not only because of the time and effort invested in the PPHI, but also because the pull factors of becoming a homeowner, and all that the title ilo would be lost.
Capital takes time to accumulate and has the capacity to multiply or expand.
An outside actor could invest or trust a person from Legarda that they would have re- fused if it srudy not been for their social connections. This frame- work connects a high access to assets with high resiliency, and a low access to assets with vulnerability.
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It is associated to the dirty water and to being an eyesore to others. Demography 3 147— Some of the obstacles presented in the review article is that local knowledge is given less recognition than scientific knowledge Sharma et al.
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In the city on the other hand, these services are easily accessible and there are more livelihood opportunities Interview 17, Social Capital, NGOs, and development: Estero de Paco Project emphasized the output-based approach.
Before ini- tiating the coding process I expected to find codes more in line with the questions from the interviews12 regarding concepts such as: Each cluster consists of around ten families and are divided according to their geographic position within the community. In December there was a fire in the community of Legarda, after the fire the families of NML were prohibited from reconstructing their homes, facing another threat of relocation.
Support- Communal ing the president social capital Maintain Responsibility to neighbours.
The pilot interview taught me that it was better to collect an informed consent verbally at the beginning of each interview, where I also asked for permission to record the interviews for the purpose of the thesis writing process. Additionally, by stidy poor families to faraway places, the majority of their salaries will be spent in transportation, which ultimately leads to families either losing their sources of income, or returning to the city csae live informally again Interview 5, People immediately began using the spaces for communal purposes.
By Rommel San Juan.
If there are tensions within the NML, the PPHI might lose support as well as bridged social capital to other actors involved in the project. Because informal settlements like Legarda are made up of light materi- als, and homes are built closely together, fires easily spark and they spread quickly, which is another reason why these areas are seen as problematic by the remainder of the city of Manila and by the government Interview 4, As I indicated in Sec- tion 6. A presidential term in the Philippines lasts for six years; both rehabilitation, and the land tenure security for the urban poor, are issues that need continuity.
In order to answer this broad question, I will analyse my case study with these sub-questions as a guidance: When I asked my respondents why they were so chocked over the defeat in the land negotiations, they said that they had been ensured that there were no problems and that the negotiations were running smoothly Interview 12, 13, In the city, the families have more opportunities to be able to save money to invest in their children, as the city provides more jobs and requires less expenses for transportation, and schools are at a walking distance from their community: The fact that the respondents might have been consider- ing how their answers could affect the PPHI did not occur to me until after the interviews, since I had presumed that I would keep their location, or at least identities, anonymous.
The coding manual for qualitative researchers. The Americans did bring with them urban improvements such as modern sewerage, bridges and roads, and urban planning.